An estimated 17.9 million people worldwide die of heart disease (also called coronary artery disease) every year, accounting for nearly one third of all global deaths.1 Heart diseases remain a leading cause of death, affecting more men than women.2 For those who survive, it may often be the start of a journey into declining cardiovascular health. This underlines the importance of rehabilitation and patient support, especially since up to 20% who had a myocardial infarction (MI) – a heart attack – go on to have a subsequent MI, stroke or cardiovascular death within the first year.3电竞外围官网
Coronary artery disease (CAD)电竞外围官网
Heart disease or coronary artery disease (CAD) is a chronic and persistent condition in which the arteries that supply the heart with blood are narrowed.4,5 Atherosclerotic plaque, a build-up of deposits of fatty material, cholesterol, cellular waste products and other substances, accumulate in the coronary arteries, obstructing the blood flow to the heart muscle.5 The plaque can cause a partial or complete blockage of blood supply to the heart muscle, which can cause a heart attack.4,5
Coronary artery disease and diabetes 电竞外围官网
We are seeing that patient therapy goes beyond treating one disease. Around one in three patients with acute coronary artery disease (CAD) is estimated to have type-2 diabetes (T2D), and patients with both CAD and diabetes are at almost double the risk for a major adverse cardiovascular event compared to diabetes patients with only risk factors for cardiovascular disease.6,7
In addition, the more risk factors that a patient with a prior heart attack may have – such as diabetes, multivessel disease or chronic kidney disease – the greater the chance of experiencing an event.8
In the US, about 33-46% of the patients with end-stage renal disease have cardiovascular disease (CVD) and about 28-44% have heart failure.9 The presence of CVD is associated with worsening short and long-term survival of end-stage kidney disease patients after a cardiovascular procedure with CVD being a leading cause of death in those patients.10
Addressing cardiovascular disease and other CVRM diseasesLOL下注网站
The hardships of patients with cardiovascular disease are experiencing, including physical and emotional burdens, have become the driving force behind our ambition to eliminate risk factors and stop disease progression. Science is uncovering the commonalities between cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases (CVRM) which is at the core of our approach towards holistic care for CVRM patients电竞外围官网
Life after a heart attackLOL下注网站
No one should go through the horror of experiencing a second heart attack, but even after a year, risk remains.3,11-13电竞外围官网
Surviving a myocardial infarction (MI) is a distressing and life-changing experience for patients. It can leave people feeling worried and scared of potentially going through another episode. Although maintaining a healthy and active lifestyle is a key factor in reducing the persistent risk of a second heart attack,14 even simple tasks such as climbing stairs, can be a daunting activity, with the fear of another episode looming.15,16电竞外围官网
There are a few other important lifestyle changes patients can make to help reduce the risk of experiencing a second episode and help ease their worry:
- Keep regular contact with doctors17
- Follow a healthy diet14
- Limit alcohol consumption14
- Quit smoking14
- Manage other cardiovascular, renal and metabolic diseases and associated risk factors14,17
Protecting patients with cardiovascular diseaseLOL下注网站
of all global deaths are caused by cardiovascular diseases1
heart attacks occurred globally in 20152
of people who were event-free for the first year after a myocardial infarction, experienced a second cardiovascular event within a 3-year period3
in global cost of cardiovascular disease, from $863 billion in 2010 to $1.04 trillion in 203018
in incidence of subsequent CV events (in patients who’ve previously had a heart attack) if five cardiovascular risk factors are present (+65 years, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, multivessel disease, prior MI) compared to patients with only one risk factor8
On our Keep Treating portal, we answer questions our patients and healthcare professionals may have and emphasise the importance of their relationship in minimising and managing the risk of a second heart attack.
Visit keeptreating.com to learn about the journey of those who want to avoid experiencing a heart attack.
CCC was founded to address the treatment compliance gap, enabling new benchmarks to be set in cardiovascular care. This collaboration expands compliance with evidence-based guidelines across China. Since 2014, there has been a 75% compliance rate among those hospitals involved.
View CCC’s infographic
The Patient Navigator Program is a transition-care improvement initiative implemented in 35 US hospitals designed to reduce the 30-day all-cause readmission rate following hospitalised heart failure, improving patients’ long-term outcomes,19 which may also lead to reduction of regulatory penalties and optimised financial results for hospitals. Developed with the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the Program successfully reduced the readmission rate among primary HF inpatients by using a patient-tailored approach.19
GULLIVE-R (GUideline adherence and risk assessment after acute myocardiaL infarction in real LIfe in Germany – a quality improVEment and awareness Registry of the German Cardiac Society) is a real-world evidence registry following patients from up to 250 hospitals and office-based centres in Germany for 9 to 18 months post-MI. Just launched in partnership with DGK-Zentrum, the programme provides counselling and lifestyle change support for patients and their treatment, whether risk stratification or routine management.20
We always have to ask ‘is that really all we can do?’ – and continue to push the boundaries of research and science. With millions suffering from cardiovascular disease and vulnerable to overlapping risks, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic approaches to stop disease progression and eliminate CV risk factors.
- World Health Organization. WHO World Heart Day: Scale up prevention of heart attack and stroke: World Health Organization. 2019. Available from URL: https://www.who.int/cardiovascular_diseases/world-heart-day/en/ [Accessed 19 February 2019].
- Roth G, et al. Global, Regional, and National Burden of Cardiovascular Diseases for 10 Causes, 1990 to 2015. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2017;70(1):1-25.
- Jernberg T, et al. Cardiovascular risk in post-myocardial infarction patients: nationwide real world data demonstrate the importance of a long-term perspective. Eur Heart J. 2015;36(19):1163–70. https://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehu505
- Knuuti J et al. 2019 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes. Eur Heart J 2019.
- American Heart Association. Atherosclerosis; 2017 [cited 2019 Feb 19]. Available from: URL: https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/cholesterol/about-cholesterol/atherosclerosis.
- Bartnik M, et al. The prevalence of abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease across Europe. The Euro Heart Survey on diabetes and the heart. Eur Heart J. 2004;25(21):1880–90.
- Cavender MA, et al. Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Hospitalization for Heart Failure, Cardiovascular Events, and Death: Outcomes at 4 Years from the Reduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry. Circulation. 2015;132(10):923–31.
- Lindholm D, et al. Association of key risk factors and their combinations on ischemic outcomes in patients with invasively managed myocardial infarction in Sweden. Presented at: ESC Congress 2018, 2018 Aug 25-29, Munich, Germany.
- United States Renal Data System. 2018 USRDS annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Chapter 9: Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With ESRD; 2018. Available from: URL: https://www.usrds.org/2018/view/v2_08.aspx.
- United States Renal Data System. 2018 USRDS annual data report: Epidemiology of kidney disease in the United States National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases: Chapter 9: Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With ESRD. 2018. Available from URL: https://www.usrds.org/2018/view/v2_08.aspx
- Bhatt DL, et al. Comparative determinants of 4-year cardiovascular event rates in stable outpatients at risk of or with atherothrombosis. JAMA. 2010;304(12):1350-7.
- Fox KA, et al. Underestimated and under-recognized: the late consequences of acute coronary syndrome (GRACE UK–Belgian Study). Eur Heart J. 2010;31(22):2755-64.
- Nakatani D, et al. Incidence, predictors, and subsequent mortality risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in patients following discharge for acute myocardial infarction. Circ J. 2013;77(2):439-46.
- American Heart Association. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Attack Prevention. 2015. Available from URL: https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/life-after-a-heart-attack/lifestyle-changes-for-heart-attack-prevention [Accessed 19 April 2019].
- National Health Service. Prevention: Heart attack. Available from URL: https://www.nhs.uk/conditions/heart-attack/prevention/ [Accessed 1 July 2019].
- Healthtalk.org. Heart attack. Available from URL: http://www.healthtalk.org/peoples-experiences/heart-disease/heart-attack/coping-emotions-after-heart-attack [Accessed 1 July 2019].
- American Heart Association. Life After a Heart Attack. 2016. Available from URL: https://www.heart.org/en/health-topics/heart-attack/life-after-a-heart-attack [Accessed 9 April 2019].
- Bloom DE, et al. The Global Economic Burden of Non-communicable Diseases. Geneva, Switzerland: World Economic Forum (cited 2018 Aug 6). Available from URL: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Harvard_HE_GlobalEconomicBurdenNonCommunicableDiseases_2011.pdf
- Di Palo KE, et al. Implementation of a Patient Navigator Program to Reduce 30-day Heart Failure Readmission Rate. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;60(2):259-66.
- Zeymer, U. 2019. Neues Versorgungsforschungsprojekt GULLIVE-R zur Langzeitversorgung von Herzinfarkt-Patienten in Deutschland. DGK Pressemitteilung, 25. April 2019. Available at: https://dgk.org/pressemitteilungen/2019-jahrestagung/2019-jt-statements/2019-jt-statements-tag2/neues-versorgungsforschungsprojekt-gullive-r-zur-langzeitversorgung-von-herzinfarkt-patienten-in-deutschland/ [Accessed 09 Sept. 2019]
Veeva ID: Z4-20766
Date of preparation: October 2019
Date of expiry: October 2021